Due to the prolonged conflict in Kashmir, since 1989, thousands of
civilians have been killed in Kashmir. While most of the killings have
taken place at the hands of security forces from unprovoked shooting,
fake encounters, in custody and other methods due to the result of
actions by the non-state actors and militants. A conservative estimate
of enforced disappearances puts it at 8000 while the state government
acknowledges 4000 disappearance cases.
Many have been permanently physically disabled, some have been raped
and some tortured leading them to become mentally ill. In fact, women
have been the worst sufferers. They continue to suffer as mothers,
spouses, widows, sisters and grandmothers. The worst affected however,
are the half-widows/half wives.
Half widows suffer social, economic and emotional insecurity. Widowed
women know that their husbands are dead, can take a decision about
their future and are entitled to some compensation under State law.
Half-widows on the other hand are uncertain about the future and are
only entitled to compensation on production of death certificates –
which they never receive. This makes the half widows most vulnerable, as
there are no legal or administrative remedies available to them.
The widows, orphans, half widows and half orphans face numerous
challenges. These range from their limited rights to property;
particularly land and houses owned by their husband’s families; to their
right to compensation and right to re-marry.
Most half widows are Muslim and there is no consensus in Islamic law
on their remarriage. All the major schools of thoughts, the Hanfia, the
Maliki; Shaafi; Hambali and Jafria provide different guidance about
remarriage. Thus while the Hanafi school says that a woman should wait
for 90 years after her husband’s disappearance some scholars of Maliki
school put the wait period as 4 years and some as 7 years. There is also
an opinion that if the husband remains missing, without informing about
his whereabouts even after proper investigation, the marriage is deemed
Opinions also differ on the validity of a second marriage should the
first husband return. Some are of the opinion that the second marriage
is automatically nullified on arrival of the first husband. Others hold
that the second marriage will remain valid if a Qazi nullifies the first
marriage even when the first husband returns. As per a circular issued
by Jammu and Kashmir government a few years back, a half widow has to
wait for seven years after the disappearance of her husband to remarry.
However, a landmark judgment by a Kupwara court on December 31st,
1993 granted permission of remarriage to one Hamida whose husband
Mohi-ud-din Bhat had disappeared just 4 years before.
Against this background, I decided to address this issue within the jurisprudence of Islam.
The difference in interpretation of Sharia law which binds every
Muslim man and woman needed to be addressed in a rational manner and a
consensus to be arrived at in the light of Quran and Hadith (sayings of
Prophet) regarding the “wait period” in case of half widows willing to
I felt it was also important to sensitize the people about the
socio-economic and emotional problems of widows and half-widows; to
mobilize support and rehabilitate this sizeable population of Kashmir
I organised a congregation under the banner of Ehsaas (Conciliation
Resources’ supported gender Peace building group in Indian Administered
side of Kashmir) with an initiative to sensitize the community about
the issues faced by the half widows and to find a consensus on the issue
of re-marriage and property rights of the victims within the
jurisprudence of Islam.
This was first such initiative by any group of civil society in Kashmir during the past 25 years of conflict.
Eight Ulema (religious scholars) from different schools of thought of
Islam took part, along with members of civil society, representatives
of the Association of Parents of Disappeared Persons (APDP) and a few
half widows to discuss solutions to the critical issues faced by half
Many brainstorming sessions were held with the Ulema, half widows,
members APDP, civil society and women activists. Finally the Ulema
reached a consensus to find a way for the half widows vis a vis their
issues of re-marriage and the property.
They decided to pave way for half widows to re marry after four years
of their husbands’ disappearance against many opposing rulings from
different schools of thought. Wide coverage was given to this
breakthrough in the State and national level papers. All sections of the
society appreciated and lauded this effort.
Parveena Ahangar, Chair person of APDP, said, “These women
(half-widows) have devoted their whole life in search of their husbands
and in taking care of their children. I am not sure if all of them will
remarry. But there has to be guidelines to address the issue of
re-marriage and addressing property and inheritance issues.”
Ezabir Ali is an alumna of the 2013/14 Isis-WICCE International Exchange Programme Institute.