Research Reports

Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Women, Peace and Security in South Sudan

In 2021, The Peace Centre in partnership with FOKUS conducted research on the advent and the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on critical political, social and economic issues that have a direct bearing on women, peace and security in South Sudan.

The research is intended to inform stakeholders’ context-specific response around women peace and security that is evidence-based.

Download a copy here; Impact of the COVID 19 Pandemic on Women Peace and Security in South Sudan Research Report

Election-Related Conflict and Violence in Uganda

An election free of violence, intimidation, coercion, bribery, incitement, misinformation, fear and sectarian tendencies is likely to produce peace, stability, social harmony and prosperity. Election-related conflict and violence have caused political unrest, partisan hatred, mistrust of political leadership and divisions in society. This undermines social cohesion, national unity, political stability and economic progress

In 2019, The Peace Centre with the support of the Embassy of the Kingdom of Belgium in Kampala commissioned a research study on Election-related conflict and violence in Uganda to understand the relationship between free, fair and legitimate elections and the observance of human rights and freedoms of citizens, before, during and after elections.

Election-Related Conflict and Violence in Uganda

Rétrécir les espaces pour les femmes bâtisseuses de la paix et les organisations qui font progresser la paix féministe

Le Centre pour la paix, en partenariat avec Cordaid, a mené une étude pour faire le point sur 20 ans de résolution 1325 du Conseil de sécurité des Nations Unies en mettant l’accent sur le rétrécissement des espaces dans les plates-formes mondiales et régionales d’élaboration de politiques pour les organisations de défense des droits des femmes axées sur le programme pour les femmes, la paix et la sécurité.

L’étude a exploré les possibilités d’accès, de participation et d’influence des femmes bâtisseuses de la paix dans les espaces d’élaboration des politiques. En particulier, l’étude s’est appuyée sur des entretiens qualitatifs avec des femmes bâtisseuses de la paix et a fait le point sur les plates-formes politiques existantes aux niveaux national, régional et mondial, analysé les cultures institutionnelles  qui étayent différentes plates-formes d’élaboration des politiques et les implications de ces cultures institutionnelles pour l’accès, la participation et l’influence des femmes dans les processus de consolidation de la  paix. Les chercheurs ont ensuite exploré les possibilités existantes de repenser et de renforcer l’accès, la participation et l’influence (donner la voix à la femmes) des femmes dans les plateformes d’élaboration des politiques afin de promouvoir un programme de transformation pour la paix.

Télécharger: Rétrécir les espaces pour les femmes bâtisseuses de la paix et les organisations qui font progresser la paix féministe

Shrinking Spaces for Women Peacebuilders and Organizations Advancing Feminist Peace

The Peace Centre in partnership with Cordaid conducted a study to take stock of 20 years of the United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325 with a focus on the Shrinking Spaces at Global and Regional policy-making platforms for Women’s Rights Organisations focused on the Women Peace and Security Agenda.

Read More “Shrinking Spaces for Women Peacebuilders and Organizations Advancing Feminist Peace”

20 Years Of Implementing the United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325 On Women Peace and Security in South Sudan

In 2020, The Peace Centre undertook a research study to critically assess the progress made, successes and challenges encountered in line with the implementation of the South Sudan National Action Plan (SSNAP) on UNSCR 1325.

The study identifies key achievements in line with the advancement of the women, peace and security agenda, the challenges and recommended actions for future intervention in relation to the promotion of gender equality and empowerment of women in South Sudan. The study which also integrates issues of youth, peace and security agenda seeks to provide recommendations for policy and programmatic interventions to accelerate the implementation of the SSNAP.

20 Years Of Implementing the United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325 On Women Peace and Security in South Sudan Research Report

Peacebuilding and Ending SGBV Movements in South Sudan, Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo and the Great Lakes Region

Over the years’ women and women’s organisations have been at the core of advocating for the restoration of peace and an end to sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) in cyclic conflicts in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), South Sudan, Burundi, and in the wider Great Lakes region. Since 2006, in response to the conflict situations, The Peace Centre then Isis-WICCE supported women impacted by conflict by building their leadership in conflict transformation and their agency in peacebuilding processes. The Peace Centre also initiated interventions for healing survivors of SGBV, where rape in these conflicts was increasingly being used as a weapon of war.
Read More “Peacebuilding and Ending SGBV Movements in South Sudan, Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo and the Great Lakes Region”

Defending the Future- Gender Conflict and Environmental Peace

The Peace Centre in partnership with Gender Action for Peace and Security (GAP) and the London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE) conducted research on Gender, Peace and Environmental conflicts. The research demonstrates the intersection between the environmental conflict, peace and gender and provides recommendations for the International Community for how it can better ensure that women and girls’ human rights can be delivered despite environmental degradation and climate change.

This report was made possible by funding from the UK’s Foreign and Commonwealth Office, the Foreign, Commonwealth and Development Office and the Arts and Humanities Research Council.

Now and the Future – Pandemics and Crisis: Gender Equality, Peace and Security in a COVID-19 World and Beyond

The Peace Centre with the support of Womankind Worldwide and Gender Action for Peace and Security (GAPS) joined 200 organizations in AfghanistanColombiaIraqLebanonMyanmarNigeriaPalestineSomaliaUganda and Ukraine to conduct a research on the impact of COVID-19 on gender equality, peace and security. This study outlines recommendations for the local, national and international community to better respond to COVID-19, future pandemics and crises, as well as deliver on their commitments to the Women, Peace and Security agenda. 

Defending Rights in the time of COVID-19

COVID-19 has transformed the world of work. Remote working has become the new normal for most people, with communications largely moving to the digital space. This has had a strong impact on the work of human rights defenders and the way they defend, promote, and protect rights.

The Office of the United Nations High for Human Rights (OHCHR) collected stories of Women Human Rights Defenders (WHRDs) on the African continent to increase the visibility of WHRDs’ work in the process of the pandemic and create a source of information to inform COVID-19 recovery programming and policymaking for WHRDs. OHCHR aims to provide a platform for WHRDs to document and exchange their experiences in the context of COVID-19 and to build solidarity among them.

The Peace Centre’s Project Officer, Diana Oroma shares her perspective on the Women Peace and Security and the Pandemic.

The Key to Change: Supporting Civil Society and Women’s Rights Organisations in Fragile and Conflict-Affected Contexts

This research, undertaken by a consortium of organisations including Gender Action Peace and Security (GAPS), Somali Women Development Centre (SWDC), Saferworld, Women for Women International, Women’s International Peace Centre (The Peace Centre), Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom (WILPF) Nigeria and Womankind Worldwide. This research report, funded by the UK’s Conflict, Security and Stability Fund (CSSF), sets out recommendations for modalities to fund, support and strengthen WROs and CSOs, as well as enable the UK, CSSF Africa and the international community – including donors, multilateral and INGOs – to better understand the challenges and opportunities for WROs and CSOs working on peace and security issues in Somalia, South Sudan, Nigeria and globally. This report outlines the findings and recommendations of this research and is supplemented by country-specific reports for NigeriaSouth Sudan and Somalia.

Implementation of the South Sudan Revitalised Peace Agreement from a Gender Perspective

Women’s International Peace Centre with support from Forum for Women in Development (FOKUS) conducted a research study to examine the opportunities, constraints and extent to which women influence the peace process in South Sudan.

This research answers the following questions; i)What are the conflict trends, dynamics their significance for ongoing peace processes in South Sudan? To what extent do these advance the Women, Peace and Security agenda? ii)What is the level of participation and representation of women in the peace process in South Sudan? iii)What are the opportunities and constraints and to what extent do women influence the peace processes, such as seen in the national dialogue, the security sector reform, the constitutional reform and the transitional government in South Sudan;  iv)How can women and in particular  young women’s advocacy efforts be supported in ways that create new spaces for them to engage key decision makers at national, regional and international levels?


Transforming Power to Put Women at the Heart of Peacebuilding

This discussion paper brings together three regional essays commissioned to explore what needs to happen. What needs to happen to ‘transform power’ to women and communities most affected by crises and conflict so that they shape the decisions that affect their lives? What would a feminist peace and security agenda look like? The essays illustrate how transformative change rarely comes from within the system; rather, it often comes from outside: from disruption by protest, and from women’s, youth, local and grassroots movements.


Cost Benefit Analysis of Cash Transfer Programmes and Post Trauma Services for Economic Empowerment of Women in Uganda

In 2015 Isis-WICCE partnered with Tilburg University, Mbarara University and Makerere University to conduct research with the aim of identifying the impact of social protection schemes, such as cash transfers on economic resilience in order to influence policy. The research is focused on populations with high levels of income fragility and trauma, seeking to understand the impact of trauma on their use of cash transfers. Women are a specific focus of this study due to their particular economic and mental health vulnerabilities. This study targeted districts affected by the 20-year war between the Lord’s Resistance Army and the Ugandan government in Northern Uganda including Kitgum, Lira, Soroti and Katakwi.

Forced To Flee; Voices of Congolese Women Refugees in Uganda

This report presents the voices and perspective of women refugees in two refugee centers of Bubukwanga Refugee Reception Center and Kyangwali Resettlement Center in western Uganda. The report draws attention to three types of women’s experiences; the attack that caused people to flee their homes in Kamago in Eastern DRC, the escape from the situation.

Making A Difference Beyond Numbers; Towards Women’s Substantive Engagement in Political Leadership in Uganda

The report interrogates whether women in politics have made a difference or not and why? It acknowledges the value and contribution of women’s physical presence in political leadership especially their focus on gender sensitive policy and legislation. It questions efforts on ‘engendering’ democracy through numerical inclusion of women into existing democratic structures and formal political institutions without addressing the structural complexities that inhibit the performance of women.

Making Gender-Just Remedy and Reparations Possible: Upholding The Rights Of Women And Girls In The Greater North Of Uganda.

The research documents and analyses how war crimes have continued to affect the lives of female victims, their families and communities. It also provides an understanding of reparations based on the experiences and perspectives of women, girls their families and communities who suffered the serious crimes during the armed conflict between the GoU and the LRA in the Greater North of Uganda. The report in grounded on empirical data from in-depth interviews with over 640 victims of serious crimes and their families from the sub-regions of Acholi, Lango, Teso and West Nile in the Greater North of Uganda.

Towards An Anti-Sexual And Gender Based Violence Norm In The Great Lakes Region Of Africa: A Review of the Implementation of the 2011 ICGLR Kampala Declaration

The report discusses the progress made by each country under the three priority areas of SGBV prevention, punishment and protection as well as support and compensation for survivors. It also reflects country specific challenges and recommendations. The key finding is that majority of the governments in the ICGLR have made great strides to fulfill the commitments to prevent SGBV, punish perpetrators and support survivors. However, rehabilitation of SGBV perpetrators has not been prioritize neither is it included in the framework and national level implementation

Kashmir Women; The Burden of Conflict, Half Widowhood and its Psychological Effects.

Isis-WICCE in partnership with Jamme/Kashmir Association carried out a study on the ‘impact of armed conflict on the Health of half widows in Kashmir- India’. The study explored the mental, social and physical impact of violence on the health of the half widows, mothers and sisters whose husbands and male relatives had gone missing due to the conflict. Forty-five women were randomly selected from the three districts of Srinagar, Baramulla and Kupwara of Kashmir valley, comprising of half widows (whose husbands are missing in custody), mothers of disappeared persons (whose sons are missing in custody), sisters (whose brothers are missing in custody) and daughters of the missing persons. Key findings show that half widows have become targets of sexual violence from those viewing them as defenseless.

Pushed to the Periphery; The Necessity of Women’s Innovation in Activating Post Conflict Reconstruction

This report provides an analysis of the extent to which post conflict reconstruction efforts in Burundi, Liberia and Sierra Leone have implemented national commitments for women’s participation in conflict management, post conflict reconstruction and rehabilitation processes, as provided for in UNSCR 1325. Based on semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions with women’s activists, the research considered diverse expressions of femininity that speak to notions of “peace” in terms of local women’s groups contribution to bringing peace in all 3 countries, their experiences and knowledge were not taken into account in the post conflict phase neither were they considered key actors that could contribute effectively to post conflict reconstruction.

Child Marriage and its Impact on Development; A Case of Kasese District

Child marriage has continued to be one of the major factors affecting the achievement of development indices and targets in Uganda. This report presents the findings of the study on “Child Marriage and its impact on Development” which was carried out in Kasese district (Western Uganda) in two counties; Busongora North.

The study provides the needed information on the problem of child marriage and its socio economic impact on the society. It directly shows that young children should instead be nurtured for development programmes and progress of society.  Involving the child mothers and fathers at every stage of development calls for looking at the issue of child marriage with holistic lenses; especially ensuring that victims and survivors get self esteem, and are provided with means to enhance their well being. It is therefore a loud reminder to policy makers, parents, cultural leaders, religious leaders and the whole community to be part of the great strides Isis-WICCE is taking to end child marriage and restore self worth in the affected that have lost hope in the future. An abused generation cannot contribute to future progress.

A Report on Access to Justice for Rape Survivors in Nepal, 2007-2010.

The report examines the extent to which survivors of rape and sexual violence access justice in Nepal as well as the response mechanisms that are in place to address the concerns of rape survivors. The study covered the 10 districts of Morang, Dhanushs, Kailali, Udayapur, Kavrepalanchowk, Kathmandu, Baglung, Dailekh, Dolakha and Darchula.

The findings show that the reporting and documentation of rape cases is still very marginal. An average of 443 cases in a year reflects a high prevalence ofrape if systems were conducive for survivors to report. The analysis further indicates that rape is deeply entrenched national problem that transcends class, caste, ethnicity, age, economic, educational, geographical and religious status.

Restoring Hope in their Own Voices; Addressing the Intersection Between GBV and HIV&AIDS in Conflict and Post Conflict Situations in Africa

Situations of conflict perpetuate sexual and gender-based violence as women are forced and coerced into relationships and raped, which consistently abuses their dignity and exposed them to sexually transmitted diseases including HIV and AIDS. In this book, Isis-WICCE publishes a collection of post-conflict communities in Liberia, Uganda and Zimbabwe. These stories of resilience and hope show that it is possible for women living with HIV&AIDS in post-conflict communities to make a difference in their lives and their immediate communities when they are given the means for empowerment.

Restoring Hope in their Own Voices


Touching the Unreached; A Medical Intervention in Liberia

This report presents the process leading up to and the analysis of the major findings of the short-term medical intervention that was undertaken by Isis-WICCE in the two counties of Maryland and Grand Kru in Liberia where a total of 1158 women and men war survivors were screened and received treatment. The key health conditions that were presented during the exercise included Vesico Vaginal Fistulae, genital prolapse, enlarged and elongated breasts, urinary tract infections, hernias, hydroceles, epilepsy and mental health disorders. The medical intervention was prompted by the findings from the Isis-WICCE report, ‘A situational analysis of the women survivors of the 1989-2003 conflict in Liberia,’ where the four counties of Lofa, Bong, Maryland and Grand Kru were studied.

A Situational Analysis of Women Survivors of the 1983-2003 Conflict in Liberia

The report highlights experiences and challenges women and men encountered during the armed conflict in Liberia in the counties of Maryland, Bong, Lofa and Grand Kru. It also highlights the conduct of the warring groups during the conflict.

The 1993-2003 armed conflict in Liberia and the sexual and Gender based violence that emanated had devastating effects not only on individuals but also communities. The war destroyed social service provision and delivery, social networks and kinship systems. The report also reveals that torture and violence were not only committed by armed groups especially on women and girls but were also systematically used by police and prison officers, who were expected to be “custodians of peace.” It also presents the conduct of the warring groups as experienced by survivors; clearly detailing high levels of sexual violence.

Women’s Experiences During Armed Conflict in Southern Sudan, 1983-2005; The Case of Juba County 2008

The study documented the experiences of South Sudanese women in the two decades-long armed conflict from 1983-2005. The study covered Juba town in Central Equatorial state. The study shows the devastating impact of conflict on the political, socio-economic and cultural dynamics of South Sudanese women. They were subjected to the most humiliating, brutal and traumatizing experiences. Apart from gang rape, often in the presence of their children, and spouses, women’s vaginas were mutilated with bayonets while young girls would have their external genitalia especially the clitoris cutout. Experiences of such gruesome torture and humiliation often resulted into mental breakdown and physical health problems.

The study reveals that the prolonged civil armed conflict greatly impacted on the population with acute poverty, poor health, persistent insecurity of persons and property, displacement and congestion in the internally displaced people’s camps.

Women’s Experiences of Armed Conflict in Uganda, Gulu District. 1989-1999

The report assesses the impact of the war on women of Gulu District, Northern Uganda focusing on their war experiences, the effects of war on their health and economic status, the position of their rights, their coping mechanisms with the war and contributions to their society in distress. The study was carried out within the population originating from 13 sub counties of Gulu District but living in internally displaced people’s camps within an 18km radius of Gulu Municipality.

The key findings reveal that the population was exposed to traumatic experiences such as captivity, abductions, torture, killings, sexual abuse/violence, intimidation, walking long distances without food or water or walking barefooted in thorns and bushes and extreme humiliation to the women. The report also highlights the major health problems faced by the survivors which include reproductive health complications such as STIs including HIV&AIDS, broken and severed limbs and a host of other ailments. Psychosocial consequences were the most numerous.

Medical Intervention Study of War Affected Gulu District.

Gulu District in Northern Uganda has been at the center of the Northern Uganda armed conflict that lasted more than 18yrs and saw more than 35,000 children abducted, 2 million people displaced into IDP camps and thousands killed. In July 2001 when the war was still ongoing, Isis-WICCE working with the medical professional team in Uganda undertook a short-term medical intervention in Awer internally displaced people’s camp. The study revealed that the population had suffered significant war traumatization including psychological, physical and sexual torture.


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